Sunday, April 2, 2006

Outdoor Barbecuing for Groups


Outdoor Barbecuing for Groups

Outdoor cooking or barbecuing to feed small and large groups is one of the most popular activities for 4-H and civic fund raisers, and for supporting educational meetings, church functions and field days. The sociability of the meal and the ease of service count almost as much as how the food tastes and provide excellent public relations for your organization. Care must be taken to ensure that quality food in the right quantity is prepared and that proper precautions are taken to prevent food poisoning. Following a few simple steps will ensure the meal is appealing, is served on time, is hot (or cold), is available in sufficient quantity and is delicious.
Planning the Menu

The successful management of an outdoor meal brings satisfaction to everyone involved and reflects the thoughtful preparation and planning of your organization. Effective planning means dividing the work and assigning the responsibilities for getting the job done. A general planning committee with smaller work committees for food preparation, site and facilities, cleanup and publicity best accomplishes this. The size of these committees varies with the type of meal and the number of people served. Planning is the key to a smoothly functioning activity. The major items, such as menu, price, site and type of service, should be planned well in advance. Complete records should be kept for financial purposes and so that the event can be evaluated with suggestions recorded for future reference.
Worksheets

Develop summary worksheets to ensure that all needs are met. Prepare a market order from the menu, showing the serving size, number of portions and total amount to be prepared. This will prevent shortages and surpluses. Prepare a market order for all materials, paper goods, pit requirements and cleanup materials. Make a list of equipment needed to prepare, cook and serve each item. Assign specific duties and responsibilities to workers or volunteers so that all jobs are completed.
Menu Selection

There are several key considerations in selecting a menu for an outdoor event. Plan a complete menu to be sure the meal is nutritionally balanced. Keep the menu simple. Simple menus are most effectively and efficiently served to larger groups. Serving sizes should be slightly larger to satisfy the heartier outdoor appetite. Cost is always a consideration but should not jeopardize the success of the event. Carefully calculate the meal cost and consider low cost items such as corn on the cob, grits or rice, biscuits or corn bread, and fresh fruits and vegetables in season. Include variety in texture, color, flavor and temperature in the menu. Bakery items work well as desserts for large groups because they can be prepared ahead of time and are easily served. However, for smaller groups, fruits in season, ice cream or a combination of the two add flair and should be considered. Congealed or gelatin desserts do not work well. Be sure to account for the differences in age, sex and occupation of the group. Serve hearty foods to people who do heavy physical work and consider lighter or fancier food for women's groups. When planning the menu, consider the time of day the meal will be served, the time required for service, the time required for food preparation and meetings that follow the meal and that require your involvement. Don't be afraid to add a little flair to the menu as long as you use standard, pre-tested recipes and consider the skill required to prepare the dish.
Food safety is important in planning the menu. Refrigeration and cooking facilities available at the chosen location may dictate the use of non-perishable items such as potato chips or limit the number of refrigerated items served.

Labor Requirement

The amount of time required for each task associated with an outdoor meal is often under-estimated. Assign individuals specific duties for the following tasks:
Assembling the cooking equipment
Obtaining the food and serving materials
Preparing the barbecue pit
Preparing the food
Six high output burners behind eight-foot smoker
Serving the food
Cleaning up and disposing of waste
Task assignments should be made even for small groups to ensure that the work is accomplished.
Site Selection

The type of menu to be served and the type of service (picnic, cafeteria, take out or banquet style) influence the facility you choose. Large outdoor pit barbecues do not require extensive seating, but well organized serving facilities must be planned. When meetings are combined with or follow the meal, seating must be provided. In case of inclement weather, alternative facilities large enough to accommodate the group should be planned or alternative dates chosen. Overflow crowds can be a problem if plans do not include additional facilities. Advance registration or ticket sales can assist in planning the site and the amount of food to prepare. Past records can provide an estimate of the number to be served if advance tickets cannot be sold.
Locate the pit or grill in a well-ventilated area where the fumes and smoke will not accumulate in the building or facility to be used for seating. Be sure the site is accessible and has adequate parking and restroom facilities. All publicity should contain directions to the function. Plan access to the facility far enough in advance for setup and cooking to be accomplished before the meal is scheduled to be served.

Food Purchasing

Before purchasing food items, prepare a market order with the estimated portion size, number to be served and total amount to purchase. Follow standardized. Tested recipes. Small quantity recipes are often not accurate when used in multiple quantities. Table 2 and Table 3 will assist you in determining the correct amount of food to be purchased for the number to be served. Be sure to have enough food, but avoid excesses, which increase the total cost. Control serving size using scoops, spoons or ladles to ensure you serve the expected number of people. If self-service is used, plan for larger portions.
Meat Selection and Cookery

Barbecuing and charcoal grilling are dry heat methods of cooking. Select tender cuts of meat such as the rib, loin, sirloin or large roast from the rump and round or leg cuts (see Table 1). The age of the animal has the greatest effect on tenderness, so select lamb or kid goat. The USDA grade can be used as a purchasing guide when selecting beef or lamb. Most swine is slaughtered for pork at less than six months of age, so toughness due to age is not a problem. The size of the cut affects the rate of cooking and the ultimate tenderness and juiciness of the meat. Select steaks and chops one to 1-1/2 inches thick and cook them slowly over a medium fire for best results. It is better to cook one thick steak and carve it into portions than to cook several thin steaks. Larger roasts make excellent barbecue meats because of the smaller surface area in relation to the weight of the cut. This allows a slowly cooked piece of meat to tenderize in its own juices during the cooking process. Cuts should be uniform in size and shape so that cooking times will be approximately the same. Roast thickness should not exceed five inches. Less tender cuts such as pork spare ribs and beef ribs can be successfully grilled by first steaming or parboiling until the connective tissue in the meat is broken down and then grilling the meat to achieve browning and a char broiled flavor. Less tender steaks can be tenderized prior to grilling. To tenderize the meat, use a commercial meat tenderizer or marinate the meat using a tested marinade recipe. Always marinate meats in the refrigerator. The fat and marbling in meat is important for barbecuing. The fat protects the meat from dehydration during cooking, increases the rate of cooking and contributes to the juiciness and flavor of the final product. Trim the outside fat, but leave a uniform cover over the surface of the meat during cooking. Some fat will render out during cooking and leave a tender, juicy piece of meat when done. The outside fat can be removed before serving or removed on the plate. The outside fat should be scored on steaks and chops to prevent the meat from curling on the grill.
Meat flavor comes not only from the type of fat (beef, lamb, pork) but also from the browning reaction achieved during cooking. The unique barbecued flavor results from the browning of the fat and protein on the surface of the product. Smoke flavor is absorbed into the meat along with any spices, seasoning and flavoring that are added before, during or after barbecuing.

Frozen roasts and steaks can be used for barbecuing or charcoal broiling; however, expect a dryer finished product due to the increased drip loss that occurs during the cooking of frozen meat. For best results, thaw roasts and steaks before cooking. Always thaw meat under refrigeration, never at room temperature. Microwave thawing is the easiest, safest method available. Hamburgers can be cooked from the frozen state to reduce the amount of bacteria growth that may occur during thawing. To reduce juice loss during cooking, turn steaks and chops with tongs rather than using a fork and never press hamburger patties on the grill while cooking. Basting meat cuts during cooking greatly reduces the amount of surface moisture lost and allows you to add a flavoring spice to the meat. Use salt sparingly during cooking, because salt draws the moisture out of the meat. Basting also improves the color and yield of the barbecued cuts.

The only sure way to determine when meat is done is to use a meat thermometer. To check the temperature, insert the tip of the thermometer into the center of the thickest part of the cut without touching a fat pocket or bone. The end point internal temperature for the degrees of doneness for meat is:


145 degrees F rare
160 degrees F medium
170 degrees F well
Whole poultry should be cooked to an internal temperature of 180 degrees F. The temperature should be checked in the thickest part of the thigh. For poultry parts, the thickest part of the meat should reach 180 degrees F for dark meat and 170 degrees F for white meat. Best results are achieved when whole pork primal cuts (hams, shoulders, butts) are cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees F. Cured pork chops or ham steaks need to cook to only 145 degrees F because they have been cooked during processing.
When cooking whole hogs, pigs or pork sides, it is recommended to leave the skin and fat on during barbecuing. This reduces shrink and increases heat penetration during cooking. The fat and skin can easily be removed during preparation, and the skins can be popped in hot (400 degrees F) fat and served as a side dish.

Purchasing Dry Goods and Paper Materials

Dry goods and paper materials are often sold in quantities of 50 and 100 and can be stored for future use. These items can be purchased well in advance, freeing time closer to the event for meal preparation. Be sure to store all dry materials in a cool dry area free of rats, mice and roaches. Large plastic bags can protect these materials from becoming soiled. Be sure to use the worksheet to list all of the items needed, the quantity and cost. This provides a checklist to ensure all necessary items are on hand and aids in planning future events. Store all unused materials and inventory them for future reference.
Setting a Price for the Meal

Unless a meal has a sponsor, you should set the price high enough to cover all costs and allow for a profit if profit is an objective. Here are some guidelines for estimating costs:
Use the worksheet to price all food items, including donated items, and total their cost.
Add the cost of labor, if any, to the food cost and include paper goods and miscellaneous costs such as those for decorating, non-paying guest meals, laundry or rental costs and janitor services. This is the estimated total meal cost.
Divide the estimated total meal cost by the estimated number of people to be served (including volunteer workers). This will give you the approximate meal cost per person.
When the meal is served at cost, charge only enough to ensure that you do not lose money. Allow a margin of safety to cover changes in the number of people served, and then multiply the estimated cost by 125 percent. For example, if the estimated meal cost is $2.00, charge $2.50 per person. When the meal is served to earn money, a fair profit is calculated by using the cost as 50 percent of the meal price. Estimate all costs (not including labor) and divide by 0.50 (percentage meal cost) to determine the selling price. Round to the nearest $0.25.

Example: Estimated food cost $206.50
Decoration and paper goods 18.50
Facility rental 25.00
Total estimated cost = $250.00
Estimated number of people 100
Estimated cost per person $250/100=$2.50
Selling price $2.50/0.5=$5.00

Food Preparation Equipment and Containers

A carefully prepared worksheet listing the equipment required to prepare and cook each menu item will ensure that sufficient equipment, containers and cooking utensils are available. The grill or pit area needed should be calculated with consideration given to the time required for cooking and for serving the food hot. If the meal is to be served over a three-hour period, smaller items such as chicken halves can be prepared on the same grill at a later time. However, larger meat cuts require longer cooking times and generally will be cooked all together. Allow grill space to cook four steaks per square foot, or 2-1/2 chicken halves per square foot.
Include foils zip lock bags or plastic containers with lids on the worksheet, to provide for handling and storing leftovers. Often, a successful barbecue will generate sales for the leftover meat or hash you have on hand. Be sure you have made your meal cost calculations beforehand so you can properly price the product. Roaster ovens are excellent for cooking baked beans, hash or other foods that are served hot. Fish fryers can be used for preparing grits, rice, hash and hot water for clean up. Ice chests or Styrofoam® containers can be used for holding hot or cold foods. Polyethylene liners help keep the containers sanitary, attractive and easily cleaned. Food processors or grinders greatly reduce the time required for preparing slaw, salads, hash and other items requiring chopping or cutting.
Beverage service containers should be large enough to hold the necessary amounts of hot and cold liquids, but should also be easy to handle. Beverages available should include water, milk and your main beverage. Allow extra of each beverage for refills during the meal. Large, covered coolers with spigots work best because there is room for ice to be added to precook the liquids, reducing the amount of ice needed in the cups. Hot coffee is best offered self-service from the pot or an insulated thermos. Beverage concentrates for tea, lemonade and juice work well for large groups, but make sure a sanitary water supply is available.
Food Safety

Plan for the proper handling and preparation of all food items to prevent food borne illness. Remember the following tips when handling food:
Keep perishable foods such as meat, poultry and fresh vegetables refrigerated until they are ready to be cooked or prepared.
Thaw all frozen meats in the refrigerator, not at room temperature.
Keep uncooked, cooked and prepared foods covered as much of the time as possible. Use foil on containers without lids.
Always wash and sanitize the cutting board, pans and lugs before reusing for cooked foods. Keep all food containers and equipment clean.
Provide hand-washing facilities at the outdoor cooking sites and always keep your hands clean.
Provide clean hot water for cleaning during outdoor cooking. A fish fryer or gas stove can be used to heat water for washing equipment and utensils.
Don't handle food if you have cuts or sores on your hands. Cover with a bandage and use gloves.
Keep cold foods cold (below 40 degrees F) and hot foods hot (above 140 degrees F) when holding before serving.
Promptly chill leftovers to below 40 degrees F in shallow containers less than four inches deep immediately after serving is complete.
Protect the food by wearing clean clothing and keeping your hair covered.
Comply with local ordinances concerning food preparation. Restroom facilities are recommended for large groups, and may be rented.
Food Preparation - Cooking the Meal

Timing is the key to food preparation. Prepare all the food items so they are ready to serve hot or cold at the appointed time. In order to achieve this, prepare and refrigerate all items that can be assembled prior to cooking the meat. Prepare salad or slaw ingredients separately, then combine and mix with dressing just before serving. Hash or Brunswick stew can be cooked the day before, placed in shallow containers for rapid cooling, refrigerated and reheated just before serving. Vegetables that require cooking, (baked potatoes) can be held hot in thermal chests for up to two hours before serving. Rice, grits, corn on the cob, hash, green beans and baked beans can be cooked in fish fryers on-site or prepared on a stove and held for up to one hour in thermal chests before serving. Plan the menu to accommodate the available facilities. Baked items should be baked ahead of time or purchased from a bakery. Sheet cakes, brownies, cupcakes and fruit pies work well. Avoid cream filled or custard baked goods because they spoil easily.
The Fire

Barbecuing for large groups is usually done over an open pit or in a large portable metal grill, with a wood or charcoal fire. Burn wood down to form a bed of hot coals, then place the coals in the pit for cooking. Not all wood burns well, so select a good supply of dry hardwood. Hickory, oak, pecan, maple and ash provide a good bed of coals when burned, but soft-woods such as pine produce a lot of smoke and off-flavors in the meat. Avoid damp or green wood. Start the fire well ahead of the time you expect to cook the meat so that a good bed of coals is available. Keep a modest fire burning to ensure additional coals are available as needed.
Charcoal is the preferred heat source and charcoal briquettes are the best form to use. Estimate the amount of charcoal needed to cover the grill area or to form a bank beside the carcass. Build a pyramid of briquettes and add the lighter fluid. When the briquettes are covered with white ash (about 20 minutes), the fire is ready for cooking. Do not light all of the charcoal at once when cooking a large roast or a whole pig, but supply the fire by adding briquettes to the fire as needed. Use commercial lighter fluid or mineral spirits to start a fire. Never use kerosene or other fuels that are absorbed by the meat and produce off flavors.
When the charcoal is ready, spread it evenly around the grill. For large pieces of meat or for whole carcasses, it is best to place the fire parallel to the meat and not directly under it to reduce flare fires. Always keep a spray bottle or water source handy to extinguish any flare ups and prevent burning the meat. Control the heat by removing or adding charcoal to the fire. One firing of charcoal should be sufficient to cook steaks or chops. A moderately hot fire is best for browning ribs or cooking steaks or chops. By placing your hand over the fire at the height of the meat, you can determine the amount of heat: You can hold your hand over a hot fire to a count of four or five and over a low fire to 10. A low fire provides the heat necessary for barbecuing large cuts and whole pigs.
Grill Cooking

Cooking steaks, chops or other meat items on a grill requires some care. If the meat sticks to the grill, grease the grill lightly. Clean off any burned particles that can stick to the food. Turn the meat only when necessary. Use tongs instead of a fork when turning the meat. Do not salt until the meat is nearly done. To test for doneness of steals, make a small split in the center with a knife and check the center for color. Do not cook over too high of a heat. Slow cooking results in a juicier product. Wood chips can be added for a smoked flavor, but should be soaked in water first to prevent flare-ups. Sawdust can also be used if dampened before being sprinkled over the fire.
Pit Roasting a Pig

A pig that is 75 to 200 pounds live weight can be cooked by either of two methods: on a rotisserie over a low fire, or on screens or rods over a low fire with hand turning of the pig.
For cooking on a rotisserie, use a pit of adequate size with windscreens to prevent the ashes from blowing and to reduce heat loss. The drive motor should be large enough to ensure proper turning. Do not split the pig into halves. Secure the carcass to the drive rod with wire and skewers so that it will not slip off during cooking. The carcass should be 12 to 18 inches above the fire and should be basted with liquid (see recipes, pages 8-10) to prevent the meat from drying during cooking. A low to medium fire (coals only) is recommended and cooking time will be six to eight hours for a 40-pound carcass, and 12 to 14 hours for a 120-pound carcass. Use a meat thermo-meter to determine doneness (165 degrees F) underneath the shoulder blade or in the center of the ham. Remove the meat from the fire and add any other sauces or seasonings after slicing.
The second method is to cook the pig over an open pit with the carcass on a wire screen or with long rods run through the pig. This requires the pig to be split in half down the backbone. The pit should be 16 inches deep, and constructed of two layers of concrete block. The pit should be 12 inches longer than the pig (about five feet). The concrete block will support the screen handles or rods. An area 40 inches wide is required to allow room on each side of the pig. If screens are used, construct them from half-inch pipe covered with a hardware screen of one-inch mesh. If rods are used, two half-inch solid rods are run lengthwise down each side with three 3/8-inch rods run across the pig through the ham, middle and shoulder. The rods should be wired to the larger rods to prevent the carcass from slipping and falling off during cooking. Turn the carcass by placing one screen on top of the other, grasping both handles and inverting quickly. A minimum of three screens is required. Screens can also be used for chicken halves. Start cooking the pig with the bone side down. Cook in this position for at least 30 minutes, then baste and turn. The carcass will require frequent basting and turning to prevent drying and charring, and turning should be done more frequently as the meat becomes done. Be sure to check doneness with a meat thermometer (160 degrees F) in the thickest portion.
The meat should be carved while hot by slicing across the muscle fibers. Thin cuts can be de-boned and minced, and excess fat should be removed. Add barbecue sauce and stir.
A portable grill can be used for barbecuing, with gas, mod or charcoal as the heat source. Portable grills work well when cooking for groups of up to 150 people.

Roasting a Small Pig

A pig weighing 20 to 40 pounds live will yield about 25 percent of that weight in edible meat. Have the pig dressed, but do not split the breast bone. Remove the head, if desired, by cutting the neck off smoothly. If the head is not removed, open the throat area and remove the esophagus and windpipe at the base of the tongue and wash the area thoroughly.
Rub the body cavity with salt and stuff loosely with oyster dressing just before roasting. Use oyster dressing because meat from a small pig has little flavor. Stuff the pig just before roasting, to prevent food borne illness. Sew or skewer the opening shut. Fold the legs tightly against the body and tie with wire. Place the pig on a pit rod and secure firmly so that the carcass will rotate. The pig should be approximately 24 inches above the pit with enough coals for a low-heat fire along each side of the carcass. Baste the pig every 15 minutes with a basting solution to prevent the skin from burning. Roast six hours, reducing the heat slightly during the last hour, and cook until the stuffing reaches an internal temperature of 165 degrees F. Remove the pig from the pit and remove the stuffing. Place the pig on a large platter with the back up, garnish, and cover until ready to serve.
To carve, split the skin down the middle of the back. Lay skin off to each side. Scrape off subcutaneous fat, and then pick the meat off the bones with a serving fork (the meat is too tender to slice). Serve with cranberry sauce, candied sweet potatoes, green beans, relishes, hot rolls and tossed or Waldorf salad. For aesthetic value, roast the head separately, wrapped in foil, and later reattached to the pig on the platter with skewers and with an apple in its mouth.
Pit Barbecuing Chicken

Broiler halves or quarters are the best serving size for a meal. Start cooking the chicken with the bone side down. Keep the fire low so that the broiler will not scorch or dry out. Allow 1-1/2 to two hours for well-done barbecued chicken. The cooking time will depend on the height of the pit (16 inches is recommended), the size of the broiler, the heat of the fire and the weather conditions. Mop or brush the chicken with sauce each time the broiler is turned. When cooking for large groups, the sauce can be sprayed on with a new, unused regular garden sprayer. Turn the chicken with tongs every five to 10 minutes. For large groups, racks built of welded wire (like those used for a pork side) turn easily by placing an empty rack on top of the filled rack and turning. Check doneness by twisting a thigh joint or a wing joint - when the bone twists out easily and has no red appearance, the meat is done.
Serving the Meal

When serving the meal, personal appearance is important. Wear a clean hat and apron, clean clothes and a smile. Wash your hands and wear disposable plastic gloves.
Use scoops, spoons and ladles to control the size of the servings. Be sure portions are generous, but avoid waste. Insulated containers, thermal chests and Styrofoam chests with liners make excellent serving containers for hot and cold foods. Rice, grits, hash and other hot foods can be served from the cooking container if necessary. Keep all foods covered before and after serving with plastic wrap, aluminum foil or lids.
The serving line layout should be designed so all people are served in 30 to 45 minutes for large crowds (250) and 15 to 20 minutes for small groups. The number of serving lines required for prepared plates is one line for each 100 people served for each 15 to 20 minutes of serving time. Four lines serving the same items on all plates can serve 600 people in 30 minutes, providing backup food items for the lines are readily available and beverage service is equally as fast. Plan and organize the serving line so that each worker knows which item he is responsible for and where and how to supply the item.

Clean Up and Write Up

The best sign of a successful event is when your excess barbecue is sold at a profit to those attending. Always cover, seal and promptly refrigerate all leftovers at 40 degrees F or below. Use shallow pans or small containers (less than five pounds) to ensure that the food chills rapidly. Dispose of any food served family-style or self-service or that has been exposed to anyone's hands.
Provide trash containers for waste removal. Clean up the cooking area and wet down ashes or other waste wood before removing them. Wash all serving utensils, pans, pots and cooking equipment in warm soapy water. Rinse in hot water and sanitize with a bleach solution (1/2 ounce of bleach in one gallon of water). Air dry to prevent the use of a dirty towel or dirty hands, which can contaminate the clean surfaces with bacteria. Remember, you are putting the public at risk when these procedures are not followed. Write a summary report detailing the number attending, the success or failure of the event, food acceptance, the amount and type of leftovers, shortages, costs and suggestions for future events. Keep your worksheets for future reference.


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Recipes


Roast Pig Oyster Dressing
1 large onion
1 quart oysters, chopped, with liquid
1 pound butter, melted
8 quarts toasted bread cubes
3 eggs, lightly beaten
5 stalks celery, diced
salt and pepper
2 cups milk

Cook onions and oysters with liquid in butter until oysters start to curl; cool. Add bread cubes, eggs, celery and milk, tossing lightly. Add salt and pepper to taste. Bake extra dressing in casserole dish at 350 degrees F for 45 minutes. Note: The liver and heart may be steamed, diced and added to a light brown gravy to be served with the dressing.



Thin Barbecue Sauce
(Use on chopped or sliced pork, venison or goat.)
1 pound butter or margarine
8 Tbsp. black pepper
1 Tbsp. red pepper (reduce for milder sauce)
4 Tbsp. salt
6 ounces catsup
2 Tbsp. Worcestershire sauce
1 gallon vinegar
1/2 gallon water

Melt butter, add other ingredients with vinegar and water last. Simmer 15 minutes. Do not boil. Pour over meat while the meat is hot and allow to stand a few minutes before serving. This recipe provides enough sauce for 25 pounds of meat, or 100 six-ounce servings of barbecue.



Spicy and Savory Sauce
(For basting or spraying chicken)
1 pint Worcestershire sauce
1 tsp. onion salt
1 pint cider vinegar
1 tsp. celery salt
1 quart water
1/2 tsp. garlic salt
4 Tbsp. cooking oil
1 tsp. MSG
1/2 tsp. paprika
2 tsp. Tabasco sauce
1/2 tsp. black pepper

Heat to boiling and simmer for one hour.



Barbecue Sauce
(Use on barbecued pork, pork ribs and beef)
2 QUARTS 8 QUARTS
1 cup 1 quart vinegar
1 Tbsp. 2 pounds butter
1 Tbsp. 4 Tbsp. Worcestershire sauce
1 Tbsp. 4 Tbsp. Tabasco sauce
1 Tbsp. 4 Tbsp. chili powder
2 Tbsp. 8 Tbsp. paprika
2 Tbsp. 12 Tbsp. black pepper
3 Tbsp. 12 Tbsp. salt
24 ounces 96 ounces catsup
3/4 tsp. 3 tsp. dry mustard
1/2 tsp. 2 tsp. cayenne pepper (ground)
1/2 cups 2 cup water (optional)
1 tsp. 2 Tbsp. liquid smoke (optional)

Simmer for 30 minutes; do not boil. For a milder sauce, omit the cayenne pepper.



Chicken Barbecue Sauce
1 PINT 1 GALLON
1/2 cup 2 cups onion, chopped
2 Tbsp. 2 cups oil
1/4 cup 2 cups vinegar
2 Tbsp. 3/4 cup brown sugar
2 Tbsp. 5 ounces lemon juice
1 cup. 64 ounces catsup
3 Tbsp. 8 ounces Worcestershire sauce
1/2 tsp. 4 tsp. mustard, prepared
1/2 cup 4 cups water
1/2 tsp. 4 tsp. celery salt
1/4 tsp. 2 tsp. cayenne pepper, ground
1/4 tsp. 2 tsp. liquid smoke (optional)

Brown onion in oil; add remaining ingredients. Simmer 30 minutes. Cook chicken halves over low fire and baste with 1-2-3 basting solution (see recipe below). Apply barbecue sauce when done and remove from grill.



1-2-3 Basting Sauce
one part vinegar
two parts oil
three parts water
salt to taste

Mix well and use immediately, while oil is still dispersed.



Barbecue Pork Spare Ribs
40 pounds pork spare ribs
(12 ounces of fresh ribs per person)
2 cups vinegar
2 gallons barbecue sauce (mild)
1/2 gallon of 1-2-3 basting solution (see recipe)

Place strips of pork ribs into a deep pot or large Dutch oven. Add the vinegar and cover. Steam or simmer for 2-1/2 to three hours or until fork tender. Build a hot charcoal fire, then remove ribs from the pot and brown over fire, basting frequently with solution to prevent burning. When the meat is amber brown, baste liberally with barbecue sauce and remove from fire immediately to a covered dish. Cover the ribs with sauce. Hold 15 minutes and serve. Serves 50.



Do Your Own Kabobs
This recipe is excellent for family outings, children's parties or 4-H get together. Each person can fix the combination of their own choice and cook them as desired while sharing in the fellowship of the activity.
3 lbs. beef kabob cubes or 1-1/4 inch thick meat strips sliced from one-inch thick sirloin tip or sirloin steaks (use lamb, fresh pork cubes, cured pork, various sausages, venison cubes or other meats)
20 medium-sized fresh mushrooms (and an assortment of items such as apple wedges, mango slices, smoked sausage, steamed new potatoes, red pimento peppers, yellow squash, zucchini or steamed plantain)
1 fresh pineapple cut into 1-1/2 inch cubes
20 cherry tomatoes or 5 small tomatoes, quartered
2 large bell peppers cut into 1-1.2 inch pieces
3 large onions, quartered

Prepare vegetables and thread marinated meat on skewers, alternating meat and vegetables. Place on a hot grill and baste with marinade. Broil to desired doneness, turning frequently. Thread steak strips accordion-style to reduce cooking time to about four minutes on each side.



Meat Marinade for Fresh Meat Cubes or Strips
1 tsp. salt
4 Tbsp. soy sauce
3/4 tsp. ground ginger
4 Tbsp. lemon juice
1 tsp. brown sugar
4 Tbsp. oil
1/4 tsp. ground pepper
1 cup pineapple juice
1/8 tsp. garlic powder

Combine salt, ginger, pepper and garlic powder. Mix soy sauce, lemon juice, oil and pineapple juice and add to the dry seasonings. Mix well. Place meat in a shallow pan and pour marinade over steak strips or kabobs. Allow meat to marinate at least four hours.



Baked Beans
100 portions 10 portions
20 lbs. (3 #10 cans) 2 pounds pork and beans, canned
10 medium 1 medium onions, diced
7 cups 2/3 cup brown sugar
3 pints 2/3 cup catsup
4 ounces 2 tsp. Worcestershire sauce
6 ounces 2 Tbsp. prepared mustard
1/4 pound 2 strips sliced bacon

Mix ingredients and place in two or three inch deep baking pan. Lay bacon on top. Bake at 350 degrees F for one hour.



Brunswick Stew
Brunswick stew is a traditional dish served at Southern barbecues. It is a favorite because of the flavor combination of chicken, beef and pork. The dish is long on flavor and short on leftovers.

1 hen (6 pounds) chicken
1 Boston Butt (6 pounds) lean pork
1 roast (6 pounds) beef chuck
15 cups (120 ounces) canned tomatoes
1 cup (8 ounces) tomato paste
4 cups (32 ounces) cream style corn
2 cups (16 ounces) whole kernel corn
4 cups (2) large onions, diced
1 ounce Worcestershire sauce
1 Tbsp. (1/2 ounce) butter
8 Tbsp. (4 ounces) salt
4 Tbsp. (1 ounce) black pepper
4 Tbsp. (2 ounces) vinegar or lemon juice

Place meat in a large kettle, add a small amount of water and cook until meat comes off the bone easily. Remove meat and de-bone. Strain broth through a cloth and return it to the kettle. Grind meat through a 1/4-inch plate or chop into small pieces by hand. Add meat, tomatoes, corn and other ingredients. Cook on low heat for 45 minutes, stirring frequently to prevent sticking. Cool, then package in freezer containers and freeze. To retain a comparable flavor, do not reduce this recipe by more than one half.





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Summary Worksheet


Group served ________________________ Date ______ Time ______
Place ______________________________ Type of meal ______________
Estimated number to be served:
Adults ______ Children ______ Workers _______ Guests _______ Total _______


Menu Number of portions Total amount prepared Recipe source


Volunteer workers (names) General chairman



Number of workers in:

Food preparation _______ Serving _______ Cleanup _______ Publicity _______


Financial Statement

Income: Number of adult meals _____ @ $ ______ = $ _________
Number of children's meals _____ @ $ ______ = $ _________
Number of workers meals _____ @ $ ______ = $ _________
Number of free meals __________
Sale of leftovers = $ _________
Other income = $ _________
TOTAL INCOME = $ _________
Expenses: Food purchased $ ___________
Paper goods $ ___________
Clean-up supplies $ ___________
Labor $ ___________
Decorations $ ___________
Facility rental $ ___________
Other $ ___________
TOTAL EXPENSES $ ___________
TOTAL INCOME - TOTAL EXPENSES = PROFIT (LOSS) = $ _________






Suggested Menus

ENTRE SIDES BEVERAGE DESSERTS
Barbecued Spare Ribs
or Beef Ribs Corn on the Cob
Tossed Green Salad
French Bread Tea
Coffee
Milk Fresh Fruit
Sheet Cake
Barbecued Pork
or Hash Rice
Cole Slaw
Sliced Bread
Onions Lemonade
Coffee
Milk Fresh fruit
Broiled Steak
or Lamb Chops Green Lima Beans
Tossed Green Salad
Toasted Garlic Bread Tea
Coffee
Milk Foil Baked Apples
Barbecued Chicken Quarters or Halves Potato Salad
Sour Dough Rolls
Sliced Tomatoes
Green Pepper Slaw Tea
Coffee
Milk Fresh Peach Ice Cream
Broiled Cured Pork Chops
Grilled Ham Slices Baked Sweet Potatoes
Green Beans
Hot Buttered Rolls
Sliced Tomatoes Tea
Coffee
Milk Apple Pie and Cheese
Chilled Cantaloupe
or Watermelon
Tomato Salad
Barbecue Beef on Bun Corn on the Cob
Potato Chips Lemonade
Tea
Milk Chilled Watermelon Fruit Salad
Grilled, Smoked or Fresh Sausage Steamed Cabbage
Baked Beans Tea
Coffee
Milk Ice Cream




Market Order Worksheet
Organization: _____________________ Date ordered: _______________
Occasion: _____________________ Date needed: _______________
Ordered by: _____________________
Telephone: _____________________




Item & Description Supplier Portion Size Number of Portions Amount to Order* Unit Price Total Price Amount
Meat, poultry
Dairy products, eggs
Fresh vegetables, fruits
Canned vegetables, fruits
Bread, cereals
Staple groceries
Paper goods & supplies
Cleaning supplies
* See Tables.





Table 1. Meat Selection Guide for Outdoor Cooking
BEEF Choose USDA Grade Prime, Choice or Select. Recommended cuts are 1 to 1-1/2 inch thick steak from the rib, loin or sirloin; or 8-10 pound roast from the rib, round or rump. Cook to the desired degree of doneness.
PORK Whole hogs or pork sides should come from lean pigs with less than 0.8 inch of backfat and good muscling. Pork primals (hams, shoulders and butts) should be well-trimmed. Avoid pale, soft and watery pork. Chops and steaks are best cut thick (1 to 1-1/2 inches). Cured pork is excellent char broiled.
LAMB Choose well-trimmed cuts. All cuts are acceptable because the animal is young. Chops should be thick. Remove fat during preparation and cook over medium fire to the desired doneness. Because lamb has a high melting point for fat, serve hot.
GOAT Select a kid or yearling that has been grain fed. All cuts are acceptable. Bone and tie thin cuts to prevent burning and drying out. Cook until well done.
VENISON Venison quality is determined by the care taken during handling and processing of the carcass. Carefully trim off an discoloration. Cuts can be rubbed with spice and wrapped in foil to prevent excessive drying, because venison has little or no fat cover. Basting during cooking also prevents drying.
CHICKEN Select fresh 2 to 2-1/2 pound broilers split into halves or quarters. Remove fat pads and wash the meat in cold water before cooking. Baste frequently during cooking over a medium fire. Test doneness by twisting the thigh or wing joint, which will separately easily when done. Doneness can be checked in the thigh meat with a thermometer. Cook to 180 degrees F.
SAUSAGE, FRESH Franks, ring bologna, Polish kielbasa, smoked beef or pork sausages and many other cooked sausages are excellent for outdoor cooking, especially for small groups or as an alternative meat item. Cook over a medium fire to 145 degrees F. Use local sources for best acceptance.
TURKEY Select medium to small turkeys for barbecuing or smoking. Be sure to use fresh, not frozen, birds. Remove the neck and giblets and leave the body cavity open. Do not stuff before cooking. Cook over a medium fire, basting often to an internal temperature of 180 degrees F at the inside of the thigh. Pre basted birds can be used. Turkey breasts or other parts make an excellent selection for barbecuing or grilling and should be cooked to 180 degrees F for dark meat and 170 degrees F for white meat.





Table 2. Barbecue Requirements - Meat
Unit per person of meat to buy for cooked edible portions of: Approximate weight (in pounds) to buy for 4 oz. portions of:
3 ounces 4 ounces 6 ounces 50 100 200
Beef, round roast, boneless 4 oz. 7.5 oz. 9 oz. 23.5 47 94
Beef, steaks, bone in 8 oz. 12 oz. 5 50 100
Beef, steaks, boneless 5.5 oz. 8 oz. 17.5 35 70
Beef, hamburger 4 oz. 6 oz. 8 oz. 19 38 76
Pork, whole pig, head off weight range 60-145 lbs 7 oz. 8.5 oz. 12 oz. 1/2) 60 lb. 1) 60 lb. 2) 110 lb
Pork, whole pig, live weight range 100-200 lb 10.5 oz. 14 oz. 16 oz. 1) 85 lb. 2) 150 lb
Pork, suckling pig, head on 20-40 lbs. live weight (25% meat yield) 24 oz. 2 5 10
Pork, shoulders, bone in 5.3 oz 7.1 oz. 10.7 oz. 22 44 88
Pork, Boston Butt, boneless 4.6 oz 6.1 oz. 9.2 oz. 19 38 76
Pork, loins/chops 6 oz 8 oz. 12 oz. 25 50 100
Pork, ham, bone in 5.9 oz 7.9 oz. 11.9 oz. 25 49 98
Pork, spare ribs 12 oz 16 oz. 50 100 200
Pork, cured ham steaks 3.7 oz 5 oz. 7.4 oz. 15.5 31 62
Lamb, rib chops 7.5 oz 10 oz. 31 62 124
Lamb, leg roast, boneless 5.0 oz 6.7 oz. 10 oz. 21 42 84
Goat whole/roast (carcass weight includes shoulder, loin, legs) 7.5 oz 10 oz. 15 oz. 31 62 124
Goat, roast, boneless 5.0 oz 6.7 oz. 10 oz. 21 42 84
Venison, roast, boneless 4.6 oz 6.2 oz. 9.2 oz. 19.5 39 78
Chicken (2 to 2-1/2 lbs.) halves (9.1 oz. w/skin) 20 oz. 62.5 125 250
Chicken - quarters 8.5 oz. 26.5 53 106
Hash (recipe yields 25 lbs.) 4 oz. 1/2 batch 1 batch 2 batches
Pork, Boston Butt, boneless (65) 6 lbs.
Beef, chuck, boneless (67) {% 6 lbs.
Chicken, hens, whole (48) yield) 6 lbs.
Sausage, fresh
Sausage, pork 4.0 oz. 5.3 oz. 8 oz. 16.5 33 66
Sausage, Polish 4.0 oz. 5.3 oz. 8 oz. 16.5 33 66
Sausage, Italian 4.0 oz. 5.3 oz. 8 oz. 16.5 33 66
Bratwurst 4.0 oz. 5.3 oz. 8 oz. 16.5 33 66
Sausage, smoked/cooked
Beef/pork 3.0 oz. 4 oz. 6 oz. 12.5 25 50
Polish (kielbasa) 3.0 oz. 4 oz. 6 oz. 12.5 25 50
Ham, pump cured/smoked (center slices) 3.5 oz. 4.7 oz. 7 oz. 14.5 29 58
Pork loin, pump cured, smoked 6 oz. 8 oz. 12 oz. 25 50 100





Table 3. Barbecue Requirements - Other Foods
Unit of purchase Serving size 50 portions 100 portions 200 portions
Potatoes, salad pound 3 ounces (3/4 cup) 12 24 48
Potato chips pound 3/4 ounce (1 handful) 2-1/2 5 10
Potatoes, baked (medium) pound 1 25 50 100
Butter pound 3 Tbsp. (3 pats) 3 5 10
Sour cream pound 1-1/2 ounces (4 Tbsp.) 4 8 16
Pepper pound 1 1 2
Salt pound 1 1 3
Rice* pound 3/4 cup 4-1/2 9 18
Grits** pound 3/4 cup 2 4 8
Pickles, dill, slices gallon 3/4 ounce (4 slices) 1/2 1 2
Pickles, sweet cut gallon 3/4 ounce (3 pieces) 1/2 1 2
Coffee pound 1 1 2 4
sugar pound 1/2 ounce 1-1/2 3 6
cream pint 12 ounce 2 4 7
Tea*** pound 1/3 (5 gal.) 2/3 (10 gal.) 1-1/2 (20 gal.)
Sugar pound 3 6 11
Lemonade (premix) pound 12 ounces 1-1/2 5 10
Ice pound 8 ounces 25 50 100
Cake sheet 2" x 2" cut 1/2 1 2
5 pound mix 2" x 2" cut or cupcakes 1/2 1 2
Frosting pound 1-1/2 3 6
Salad: 3 ounces
head lettuce pound 8 ounce bowl 11 23 45
fresh tomatoes pound 3 6 12
carrots pound .75 1.5 3
French dressing pint 1 ounce 3 6 12
Slaw: 2 ounces
cabbage pound 1/2 cup 8 16 32
carrots pound .75 1.5 3
salt pound 4 Tbsp. 8 Tbsp. 16 Tbsp.
pepper pound 4 Tbsp. 8 Tbsp. 16 Tbsp.
mayonnaise quart 1 pint 1 quart 2 quarts
Barbecue sauce: see separate recipes gallon 2.5 ounce/4 ounces of meat 1 2 4
Bread, thin slice loaf 2 slices 5 9 18
Buns, flat type 8 pack 2 100 200 400
Beans, navy #10 can
see baked beans recipe (7.5 lbs.) 1.33 3 6
1 lb. can 4 ounces 12.5 pounds 22.5 pounds 45 pounds
Green beans #10 can 3 ounces 2.5 4.5 10
Peas, green #10 can 3 ounces 2.5 4.5 9
* Rice 1 cup with 2 cups of water
** Grits 1 cup with 4 cups of water
*** Tea 8 individual bags per gallon





Table 4. Barbecue Requirements - Paper and Dry Goods
Number of People
Unit of Purchase 50 100 200
Paper plates 50/100 60 110 220
Plastic plates (10 inch, sectioned) 125 50 100 200
Styrofoam (R) cups (10 ounce) 50 50 100 200
Plastic cups (16 ounce) 50 50 100 200
Spoons 25/100/500 50 100 200
Knives 25/100/500 50 100 200
Paper napkins 100/500 75 150 250
Handy wipes box 1 2 4
Plastic aprons and hats 50 1 1 1
Plastic gloves 100 1 1 1
Lighter fluid quart 1 2 4
Wood - ash, oak, hickory pounds 500 1000 1600
Charcoal
barbecue pounds 50 100 180
steaks pounds 30 50 100
Length of pit (3 ft. wide, 16 in. deep) 4 ft. 6 ft. 9 ft.

Barbecue Books

  • Championship Barbecue by Paul Kirk